The Ann Arbor Greenbelt District is a designated area around Ann Arbor in which the City aims to preserve open spaces, including farmland, natural habitat, and the streams and wetlands that feed the Huron River. This protection is done through a purchase of development rights (PDR), funded by the City's 2003 Open Space and Parkland Preservation Millage. Ann Arbor Township additionally passed a millage for this purpose in 2003, with Scio Township and Webster Township following.
The goals of the greenbelt, as set by the 2006 Greenbelt Strategic Plan, are,
- Preserve large blocks of farmland in five target areas,
- Preserve land alongside the Huron River and major tributaries, and
- Obtain maximum leverage of taxpayer money through use of grant funds, partnerships, and landowner donations.
As of June 2008, a total of 755 acres in the greenbelt had been protected in this way, including 6 working farms as well as the Fox Science Preserve in Scio Township. The focus to date on working farms has been driven in part by the availability of Federal matching funds through the Farm and Ranchlands Preservation Program.
2003 Ballot Initiative
The key funding mechanism for the greenbelt program is a 0.5 mill, 30 year property tax approved by the City of Ann Arbor as Proposal B on the November 2003 ballot. The program was expected to raise at least $87 million, to be coordinated with the preservation millages in the Townships, related grants, and donations by landowners of a portion of the appraised value of development rights.
Greenbelt Protected Properties
Several properties in the greenbelt district have been protected through the purchase of development rights or outright purchase with funding from the 2003 millage. These include:
- Bloomer Farm, 152 acres, Webster Township, November 2005, PDR, $1.7m city, $191k Federal Farm & Ranchlands Preservation Program, $210k donated by owner
- Alexander Farm, 70 acres, Northfield Township, July 2007, PDR, $1.015m city, $335k federal
- Narrow Gauge Woods, 13.5 acres, City of Ann Arbor, January 2008, purchase, $1.8m city
- Biltmore Greenbelt Purchase, 139 acres, Superior Township, June 2008, purchase (by Washtenaw County Parks & Recreation Commission), $626k city, $1.3m total
- Hilton Farm, 82 acres, Pittsfield Township, July 2008, PDR, $597.5k city, $295k township, $350k federal, $255k state agricultural preservation board
- related: Hilton Farm, 52 acres, Pittsfield Township, July 2008, purchase, $1.09m city solid waste fund
- Open Roads Woodlot, ~91 acres, Scio Township, August 2008, purchase (by Washtenaw County Natural Areas Program), $350k city, $250k township, $2.25m total
The City made its first purchases of development rights (PDR) in 2005. While the greenbelt millage was ostensibly a "parks" millage, most of the money will not be used for parkland in the traditional sense. The first several purchases made have been of the development rights on working farmland, with the assistance of Federal grants for farmland preservation; that land will remain with the current owners rather than becoming part of the public domain.
The mechanism of a PDR is to separate out the right to develop (build upon) land from the "bundle" of rights that go with that land - the owners retain other rights, such as the right to forbid access and the right to sell the land. With the development rights separated, however, and locked into a conversation easement, the land can never be turned into a subdivision or a strip mall. This provides benefit for Ann Arborites by limiting suburban sprawl, maintaining habitat and working farms (and therefore the City's ability to host a Farmer's Market), and protecting the Huron River watershed from the increased runoff of contaminated stormwater that low-density development creates. On the landowner's side, the PDR reduces land value drastically, removing the investment value of agricultural land, but provides a large quantity of cash in exchange, which the landowner can use as an alternate investment. The reduced value of the land additionally reduces the property tax burden on the landowner.
Mike Garfield, of the Ecology Center and a member of the Ann Arbor Greenbelt Advisory Committee, has suggested that the greenbelt fund provides the opportunity for Ann Arbor to approximate a transfer of development rights (TDR) program, in which development rights are separated from one parcel - preserving that land from development - and adding it to another parcel, generally within an already built-up area. Developers desiring to create denser projects than the existing zoning allows, in this model, could pay a predefined amount of cash into the greenbelt fund in exchange for the extra density, making the additional density not actually additional, but simply a movement of that use from low-density development to high-density development. Running a TDR program via the greenbelt fund would have the added benefit of allowing land preservation experts to use the money to buy development rights as part of a coordinated regional strategy, rather than having haphazard purchases made by individual developers.
- Ann Arbor News, 8/7/08, Ann Arbor park proposal postponed, greenbelt buy ok'd
- Lands of America.com, 7/24/08, Farmland rights to be bought Ann Arbor, Pittsfield agree on PDR purchase
- Concentrate Media, 6/18/08, Ann Arbor's greenbelt grows with latest 139 acre purchase
- Metromode Media, 1/24/08, Ann Arbor greenbelt expands, buys Narrow Gauge Woods
- Metromode Media, 7/26/07, Ann Arbor greenbelt program makes sixth purchase, controls 700 acres
- Arbor Update, 11/8/05, Ann Arbor makes first greenbelt purchase